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                章瑩穎好姑娘,美國司法欠你一個公正!

                王冠 (中央電視臺北美分臺首席時政記者)

                美∮國的法律體系講究“程序正義”,尤其體現在對被告權益的保護上。

                章瑩穎案的調查階段,克裏斯『滕森不曾被刑訊逼供,他享有的沈默權(Miranda’s Rights)使他不必自證其罪;審判,他穿著自己喜歡的襯衫和休閑西褲進入庭審現場,沒有囚服,沒有腳鐐,第五天因偏頭疼還被法官允許提前離庭,回到了他那個擁有電視、淋浴、視頻電●話的看守所雙人間;兇手家人付不起高昂的辯護律師費,於是法庭中途給他更換完了完了了一名免費的公共律師▅。

                量刑審判的9天裏,6天留給⊙了辯方舉證陳詞;最終宣判,12名陪審員中有2人反對死刑,其中一人認為克裏斯左手滕森作案前服用的抗抑郁癥藥物對其行為產生了影響,另一人則認為兇手在監獄內沒有再次傷害別人ξ 的可能。因此,兇手被〒判終身監禁,免於一死。

                章瑩穎案的每個環節似乎都彰顯了“正當程序”的力量。


                這張6月24日的法庭素描顯示ω 的是布倫特·克裏斯滕森(前右)在钥匙位於美國伊利諾伊州皮奧裏亞的聯邦法院出◇庭受審。(圖/新華網)

                然而,程序正義』總能保證實質正義嗎?

                當然,實質正義是一個見仁見智的概念。但至少在章瑩穎家◣人和許多中國民眾眼中,此案的正義並沒有完全得到伸張。克裏斯︼滕森蓄意綁架、強暴章瑩穎,勒死未︾遂後用刀狂捅其頸部,後砍頭分屍。他多次對聯邦執法人員撒謊、作偽證。案發至↘審判769天以來,他未曾對章瑩穎父母說過一聲“對不起”,他甚至不肯透露章瑩穎屍體的下落,致使父母帶女兒遺體回國安葬的最後心願也無法得到滿足。這些都是檢方要求死刑判決的重判條件。但由於一兩個陪審員的反對,罪犯便無須“殺人償命”。理論上,N年後他或許還有可能獲得總統特赦。法庭宣判的那一刻,克裏斯滕森╱低頭微笑,然後▃同他的律師緊緊擁抱。

                這一幕,讓一些人想起了1994年震驚△全球的“辛普森殺妻”案, 在帶有血跡的作案▲手套、襪子及DNA檢驗結果俱在,鐵證如山的情況∞下,經過200多天的漫長審拿不住了手里判,由8名黑人、2名拉丁裔、1名白人、1名亞裔混血組成的陪審團卻依然判定黑人橄欖球明星辛普森無罪釋放。全』美一片嘩然。絕大多數聆聽了案情的美國人至今都相【信辛普森殺害了妻子。


                辛普森最後被無罪釋放(資料圖)

                由於篇幅和專業所限,在此不對美國的法律制度進行深入探究。我只想結合在庭審現場的觀察,談談對章瑩穎案陪審團的幾點思考和疑惑。

                首先,陪審團中絕大转过头来多數是白人。

                設立↑陪審團的本意是避免法官一人專斷,用“一般人會怎麽实力面前做”的標尺來和同事们基本是一块到达協助刑罰。在庭審現場我們看到,12名陪審員中至少有11名白人(另外一人貌似白人混血),占比達92%,遠高於美國非拉丁裔白人占比(60%)以及整個伊利諾伊州的白人占比〓(70%)。

                當年的辛普森殺妻案,被告律師通過程序正義賦予的各種手段,打造了一個黑人為主的陪審團陣容幫助辛普森獲得無罪宣判,在當年引發联系方式了頗多爭議。在章瑩穎案中,為什麽在明知罪犯是白人的情況下,選擇了12名白人或擁有白人血統的陪審員?亞裔及其他族裔的情感訴求而是没想到他竟然会是唐龙又如何能夠被╲體現?

                第二,此案在已經廢除死刑的州審判。

                在美國判處死刑絕非易①事。放眼全美,21個州已廢除了死刑,在沒有廢除死朱俊州也猜到了对方不是个简单刑的29個州裏,過去5年曾執行過死刑的也只有13個。伊利諾伊州8年前就廢除了死刑,雖然此案所在的聯邦法庭理論上可以判處死刑,但陪審員都是伊利諾伊州的居民,很難不受當地主流觀念的影響。

                第三,被但是却发现自己根本无法环抱律師和程序“擺布”的陪審團。

                美國是法○治國家(rule of law)不假,但“律師治國”(rule of lawers)也是其中一股強大的暗流。辯護律師們冷哼一声嫻熟地利用規則,左右陪審團認知。比如在量刑第佯攻二天,章瑩穎男友侯霄霖出庭作證。當他的聲音開始哽咽,開始講述失去章瑩穎給自己帶來的痛苦時,被告律師覺察到接下來的表述會打動陪審團,立刻無情打斷證人,並要求法官判處證人作證無效,因為證詞中希望嚴懲兇手的段落疑似違反了“不得對兇手量刑提再说了出建議”的規定。法庭一度疾步走了过去中斷。章瑩穎弟弟、父親、同學作證時装饰也多次出現了辯方律師“合理”利用規則打斷庭審進程、給陪審員進行人工“感情降溫”的情況。

                此外,據筆者的現場觀察,克裏斯滕森在陪審團在場與否的情況下表現大不相同。陪審團在場時,知道律師幫自己主打“精神病”牌的他絕大部分時候面無表情。而當陪審團退場後,他和律師常常有說有曼斯笑。

                最後要說,美國主流媒體對章瑩穎案冷漠地“集體啞火”令人失望。

                案件宣判當天,谷歌新聞搜索排名前十的對此案的報道全部來自中國媒體或伊利諾伊州地但他知道肯定没有什么好话方媒體。在庭審現場感受更加明顯,七排旁聽席一半座位是空的,半數以上旁聽者是章瑩穎的家人、朋友以及中方使領館人員和中國他当然不会放弃对記者。僅有的三、四個美國記者也是當地電視臺看上去20來歲的年輕人。其他在場的美國人則是控辯雙方的家人,以及當地大學√法學系的學生。

                來源:觀察者網 2019-07-22


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